The National Academies

The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What do you know about infectious disease?

For each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, about how many children die from the infection in developing countries?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

  • Correct!

    Life-saving vaccines and medications aren’t distributed equitably around the world; for each child who dies from pneumonia in an industrialized country, more than 2,000 children die from the infection in developing countries.

About how often is someone in the world newly infected with tuberculosis (TB)?

  • Correct!

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Someone in the world is newly infected with tuberculosis (TB) every second. In 2008 there were an estimated 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.8 million deaths.The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world, and more than half of all deaths occur in Asia.

Where do microbes live?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice. 

  • Correct!

    Microbes live in all of these places. They also live in plants and in the air. They can even survive in extreme environments like hot springs, deep ocean thermal vents, and polar ice.

In 2008, about how many people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In 2008, more than 33 million people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In that same year, an estimated 2 million people died from AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of HIV infection.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    In 2008, more than 33 million people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In that same year, an estimated 2 million people died from AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of HIV infection.

  • Correct!

    In 2008, more than 33 million people worldwide were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). In that same year, an estimated 2 million people died from AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the final stage of HIV infection.

True or False: Not all microbes are harmful to humans.

  • Correct!

    Not all microbes are harmful to humans. In fact, many of them protect us, helping our bodies function properly and competing with harmful organisms in an eternal contest for habitable space in or on our bodies. Although the microorganisms that cause disease often receive more attention, most microorganisms do not cause illness.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Not all microbes are harmful to humans. In fact, many of them protect us, helping our bodies function properly and competing with harmful organisms in an eternal contest for habitable space in or on our bodies. Although the microorganisms that cause disease often receive more attention, most microorganisms do not cause illness.

The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about what percentage of cervical cancer cases?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes more than 90% of cervical cancer cases.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes more than 90% of cervical cancer cases.

  • Correct!

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes more than 90% of cervical cancer cases.

True or False: Washing your hands with soaps that have residue-producing antibacterial products, such as those containing the chemical triclosan, have been proven to confer health benefits.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Washing with regular soap is considered the most important way to prevent disease transmission. Routine consumer use of residue-producing antibacterial products has no added benefit and may actually contribute to antibiotic resistance.

  • Correct!

    Washing with regular soap is considered the most important way to prevent disease transmission. Routine consumer use of residue-producing antibacterial products has no added benefit and may actually contribute to antibiotic resistance.

True or False: Infection with a pathogen (a disease-causing microbe) does not necessarily lead to disease.

  • Correct!

    Infection occurs when viruses, bacteria, or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease follows when the cells in your body are damaged as a result of infection, and signs and symptoms of an illness appear.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Infection occurs when viruses, bacteria, or other microbes enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease follows when the cells in your body are damaged as a result of infection, and signs and symptoms of an illness appear.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the number of people in the world has: 

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Since the beginning of the 20th century the number of people in the world has more than quadrupled—from 1.6 billion to nearly 7 billion—and world population is expected to rise to well over 9 billion by 2050.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Since the beginning of the 20th century the number of people in the world has more than quadrupled—from 1.6 billion to nearly 7 billion—and world population is expected to rise to well over 9 billion by 2050.

  • Correct!

    Since the beginning of the 20th century the number of people in the world has more than quadrupled—from 1.6 billion to nearly 7 billion—and world population is expected to rise to well over 9 billion by 2050.

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Disease Watchlist

Infectious Disease Defined

Vector

An organism (usually an arthropod such as a flea, mosquito, or tick) that carries an infectious agent from one host to another.

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