The National Academies

The National Academies: What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

What You Need To Know About Infectious Disease

Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes. It is typically found in tropical and subtropical areas in Africa and South America. Yellow fever is a rare cause of illness among U.S. travelers. 

Symptoms
About 3 to 6 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito, the individual develops symptoms including headache, fever, joint aches, vomiting, and jaundice. After 3 to 4 days, the person may go into remission; many people recover at this stage. But within 24 hours, about 15 percent of infected individuals develop symptoms of a more severe form of the disease. These include high fever, jaundice, bleeding, and eventually shock and organ failure. Among those who develop severe disease, 20 to 50 percent may die. 

Treatment
Although there is no treatment for the virus, many of the symptoms can be addressed. Rest, fluids, and use of medication to reduce the fever can help. However, aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, should not be used because they may increase the risk of bleeding. 

Prevention
A vaccine for yellow fever is available, and it offers the best protection against the virus. The vaccine—a live, weakened strain of the virus—is given as a single shot. For people who remain susceptible, the shot should be given every 10 years. Other precautions that can be taken include sleeping in screened areas to avoid contact with mosquitoes, using mosquito repellants, and wearing clothing that fully covers the body.

Sources:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002341/
https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/symptoms/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/vaccine/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/prevention/index.html

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What do you know about infectious disease?

About what percentage of the antibiotics produced in the United States is added to animal feeds to promote growth?

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Almost 70% of all the antibiotics produced in the United States is added to animal feeds—not to fend off disease but to boost growth. These non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics are a perfect way to cultivate microbes that are resistant to antibiotics.

  • Sorry, that’s incorrect.

    Almost 70% of all the antibiotics produced in the United States is added to animal feeds—not to fend off disease but to boost growth. These non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics are a perfect way to cultivate microbes that are resistant to antibiotics.

  • Correct!

    Almost 70% of all the antibiotics produced in the United States is added to animal feeds—not to fend off disease but to boost growth. These non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics are a perfect way to cultivate microbes that are resistant to antibiotics.

Infectious Disease Defined

Metabolism
The sum total of chemical reactions that occur within a living cell both to build new molecules within the cell and break down and assimilate sources of energy for the cell.

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